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Category: Reverse Engineering

Pwnable.kr CTF writeup: level 6 – random

This one turned out to be surprisingly easy. What’s required is an understanding of random number generators, and how they’re not really random. Implementations of random number generators are known as PRNGs, acknowledging that they are pseudo random number generators. They use various tricks in order to produce streams of not obviously connected numbers, but without an understanding of how they’re meant to work it can be easy to produce a problem similar to the one described in this CTF.

Code

#include

int main(){
unsigned int random;
random = rand(); // random value!

unsigned int key=0;
scanf("%d", &key);

if( (key ^ random) == 0xdeadbeef ){
printf("Good!\n");
system("/bin/cat flag");
return 0;
}

printf("Wrong, maybe you should try 2^32 cases.\n");
return 0;
}

Pretty simple to understand, we have two variables, random and key. A decimal value is read into key through scanf, and rand() assigns a “random” number to the variable ‘random’. We then XOR the values and if the result is 0xdeadbeef we give up the flag. In theory, this should be hard to beat. Wouldn’t we have to keep trying values until we happen to get the right one? And with such a large problem space, that could take a very long time.

Key Insight

The most important thing to recognise is that this is incorrect use of the rand() function. Using PRNG correctly involves “seeding” the generator with a value that changes frequently, a common tactic is to use the current timestamp supplied to srand (there are some issues with this too, see if you can figure them out). This leads to predictable behaviour, which becomes a problem when knowing the random value allows us to exploit the behaviour. A list of historical examples of where this has been used in real-world attacks can be found on wikipedia’s page on random number generator attacks

Since the rand() call isn’t seeded, it’s fairly trivial to check the value of a few runs of the program in GDB. Setting a breakpoint for the next line after the call to rand() makes it easy to observe what’s returned from the function into the RAX register (the one used to store return values traditionally). A few runs through and it’s easy to see that this value doesn’t change. Due to failure to seed the PRNG it’s returning the exact same value each time, which happens to be 0x6b8b4567. Now we have the following simple equation to solve: something XOR 0x6b8b4567 = 0xdeadbeef. The value we’re looking for will be 0xdeadbeef XOR 0x6b8b4567, which ends up being = 0xb526fb88 which is 3039230856. Let’s try it:

random@ubuntu:~$ ./random 
3039230856
Good!
Mommy, I thought libc random is unpredictable...

Pwnable.kr CTF walkthrough: level 1 fd

Pwnable.kr contains a set of CTF challenges ranging from beginner to advanced. I’ve been working through them to increase my understanding of binary exploitation and Reverse Engineering, and I’ll be posting walkthroughs for ones I’ve solved

Logging in to the machine specified, we see a banner and have a bash shell, and listing the contents of the homedir we can see we have three files, a binary, a C source file (of the binary) and the flag file.

$ ssh fd@pwnable.kr -p2222
fd@pwnable.kr's password: 
 ____  __    __  ____    ____  ____   _        ___      __  _  ____  
|    \|  |__|  ||    \  /    ||    \ | |      /  _]    |  |/ ]|    \ 
|  o  )  |  |  ||  _  ||  o  ||  o  )| |     /  [_     |  ' / |  D  )
|   _/|  |  |  ||  |  ||     ||     || |___ |    _]    |    \ |    / 
|  |  |  `  '  ||  |  ||  _  ||  O  ||     ||   [_  __ |     \|    \ 
|  |   \      / |  |  ||  |  ||     ||     ||     ||  ||  .  ||  .  \
|__|    \_/\_/  |__|__||__|__||_____||_____||_____||__||__|\_||__|\_|
                                                                     
- Site admin : daehee87.kr@gmail.com
Last login: Sat Feb 17 06:54:22 2018 from 121.125.207.90
fd@ubuntu:~$ ls
fd  fd.c  flag
fd@ubuntu:~$ 

Checking the ownership of the files yields the following:

fd@ubuntu:~$ ls -l
total 16
-r-sr-x--- 1 fd_pwn fd   7322 Jun 11  2014 fd
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root  418 Jun 11  2014 fd.c
-r--r----- 1 fd_pwn root   50 Jun 11  2014 flag

So we know that the ‘fd’ executable has the SUID bit set, and will run as fd_pwn. We can’t access the flag directly, as it’s owned by fd_pwn, but presumably we can subvert the execution of the fd binary and access the flag file as the user that owns it. A quick look at the source of fd yields a contrived exploitable example, but one that still requires a couple of insights to solve:

#include 
#include 
#include 
char buf[32];
int main(int argc, char* argv[], char* envp[]){
        if(argc<2){
                printf("pass argv[1] a number\n");
                return 0;
        }
        int fd = atoi( argv[1] ) - 0x1234;
        int len = 0;
        len = read(fd, buf, 32);
        if(!strcmp("LETMEWIN\n", buf)){
                printf("good job :)\n");
                system("/bin/cat flag");
                exit(0);
        }
        printf("learn about Linux file IO\n");
        return 0;

}

The important call here is to read(), where data is read into a buffer from a file descriptor obtained by converting the user supplied string to integer and subtracting 0x1234 (4660 in decimal). If you're unfamiliar with linux's file descriptors read this first. The key insight is that processes in linux have numerical file descriptors assigned to them, by default each has 3 (0, 1 and 2) corresponding to STDIN, STDOUT and STDERR. In theory, if we can make the read() call obtain its data from the file descriptor 0, it can be tricked into obtaining data from standard input and placing it in the character buffer 'buf'. We can then simply supply the string LETMEWIN on the command line and obtain the flag. Supplying 4660 as the user input results in the fd being 0, and prompts for a string. And we're done!

fd@ubuntu:~$ ./fd 4660
LETMEWIN
good job :)
mommy! I think I know what a file descriptor is!!

CMU Binary Bomb: Phase 2

This is part of a series of walk-throughs for the CMU Binary Bomb Lab. You can find Phase 1 here

Phase 2 is where things start to get a little interesting. Taking a quick look at the body of the phase_2 function as we did in the first phase, there’s some useful information to be obtained here:


There’s a few useful bits of information in here, first is the glaringly obvious function name:

0x08048b5b    e878040000   call sym.read_six_numbers

So it’s not a stretch to think that this phase takes six numbers as its input. The function itself confirms this:

Since scanf() is being called with a template string, checking the string at the memory location might give some insight into how the user input string is being processed.

[0x080488e0]> psz @ 0x08049b1b
%d %d %d %d %d %d

So six decimals is what we’re looking for. Looking at the CMP instruction indicates that if there are less than 5 numbers supplied, the bomb will explode.
Going back to phase_2, the next important part is the next CMP instruction before the explode_bomb call.

Writing out the pseudocode for this is helpful, the ESI register indicates we’re probably dealing with an array of some sort. EBP-0x18 is where the series of numbers is stored and EBX is a counter starting at 1 and ending at 6, which appears to be a loop.

This means the pseudocode is likely something like this:

function phase_2(number_array) {
  if (number_array[0] != 1) {
    explode_bomb()
  }
  *esi = num_array;
  for (ebx = 1; ebx < 6; ebx++) {
    *eax = ebx+1
    eax = eax * (*esi) + (ebx*4) - 4
    if (*(esi+ebx*4) != eax) {
     explode_bomb()
    }
  }

}

Doing a little more cleanup:

function phase_2(number_array) {
  if (number_array[0] != 1) {
    explode_bomb()
  }

  for (x=1; x <= 5; x++) {
    current = number_array[x-1] * x+1
    if (number_array[x] != current) {
      explode_bomb()
    }

  }
}

So the first number needs to be 1, and the subsequence numbers should be equal to the previous number * (current position +1). This makes the sequence:
1 (1*2) (2*3) (6*4) (24*5) (120*6)

= 1 2 6 24 120 720

Boom! done.

CMU Binary Bomb Lab: Phase 1

The binary bomb lab from CMU is a legendary learning exercise as part of the Computer Systems course at Cargenie Melon University.

A “binary bomb” is a program provided to students as an object code file. When run, it prompts the user to type in 6 different strings. If any of these is incorrect, the bomb “explodes,” printing an error message and logging the event on a grading server. Students must “defuse” their own unique bomb by disassembling and reverse engineering the program to determine what the 6 strings should be. The lab teaches students to understand assembly language, and also forces them to learn how to use a debugger.

Dealing with the bomb involves defusing 6 phases, I’ll be covering one phase per article.

Tools (across all 6 phases)

$ ./cmubomb 
Welcome to my fiendish little bomb. You have 6 phases with
which to blow yourself up. Have a nice day!
> test phrase
BOOM!!!
The bomb has blown up.

Standard cracking techniques will work here, and with phase 1 there’s very little protection in place. A quick look at the disassembled source suggests that the code for each phase is contained within a function named phase_[number]. Radare2’s output is very useful once you get used to looking at it.

The phase_1 function is fairly simple. Using the PDF (print disassembled file) command along with sym.function_name allows viewing the function in isolation. Here’s an annotation of what it’s doing:

  push ebp
  mov ebp, esp
  sub esp, 0x8

This is the standard way of entering a function, putting EBP on the stack and swapping EBP with ESP, and then making space on the stack for local variables. If you’re unfamiliar with this sort of thing, be sure to read up on how stack frames work.

 mov eax, [ebp+0x8]

When you see numbers along with EBP, an easy way to translate what’s being handled is the following:

| [ebp + 16] (3rd function argument)
| [ebp + 12] (2nd argument)
| [ebp + 8]  (1st argument)
| [ebp + 4]  (return address)
| [ebp]      (old ebp value)
| [ebp - 4]  (1st local variable)

So the first argument to the phase_1 function (likely the string we entered) is being passed along in the next function call.

push str.Publicspeakingisveryeasy. ; 0x080497c0 
  push eax

Two arguments are being put on the stack in preparation for a function call. One is the function argument that was kept in eax, the other is a string of some sort.

call fcn.08049030 (sym.strings_not_equal)

So we’re calling strings_not_equal with two strings, in a piece of code that checks passwords.

 
  add esp, 0x10
  test eax, eax
  jz 0x8048b43

The strings_not_equal function puts its result in eax. Since the `test eax, eax` instruction is simply a fast way of checking if the value is zero, it’s quite probably that strings_not_equal returns zero if the strings are equal, much like strcmp.

call sym.explode_bomb

If the result of the strings_not_equal function is zero, the explode_bomb call would’ve been avoided.

  mov esp, ebp
  pop ebp
  ret

This does the opposite of what the intro to the function did, in prep for returning from the called function. Putting all this together it should be fairly clear what the phase_1 function does:

phase_1(password) {
  if (strings_not_equal(password, stored_password) > 0) {
    explode_bomb()
  } else {
    return
  }
}

Since radare2 gave us the location of the password string in memory, it’s very simple to grab it:

[0x080488e0]> psz n @ 0x080497c0 
Public speaking is very easy.

`psz` prints the null-terminated string at the location specified, and that’s our password for Phase 1!

Modern Binary Exploitation Labs: Reversing crackme challenges (levels 0-3)

Introduction

Modern Binary Exploitation is an undergraduate course released for free by RPISec. The course content covers basic and intermediate topics, and describes itself as follows:

Modern Binary Exploitation will focus on teaching practical offensive security skills in binary exploitation and reverse engineering. Through a combination of interactive lectures, hands on labs, and guest speakers from industry, the course will offer students a rare opportunity to explore some of the most technically involved and fascinating subjects in the rapidly evolving field of security.

The course will start off by covering basic x86 reverse engineering, vulnerability analysis, and classical forms of Linux-based userland binary exploitation. It will then transition into protections found on modern systems (Canaries, DEP, ASLR, RELRO, Fortify Source, etc) and the techniques used to defeat them. Time permitting, the course will also cover other subjects in exploitation including kernel-land and Windows based exploitation.

The first set of labs involve “Tools and Basic Reverse Engineering”, and include a set of crackme exercises. In the rest of this article I’ll be walking through the process of reversing the files in order to determine the solution.

Tools

Radare2

Radare is a unix-like reverse engineering framework and commandline tools http://www.radare.org/

GDB (with pwndbg)

GDB is a standard tool for debugging/exploit development, originally I was using it with the PEDA toolkit. Recently I discovered that pwndbg actually provides a lot more useful functionality and a consistent interface, so it’s a worthy addition to any RE toolkit.

Snowman

Snowman is a native code to C/C++ decompiler. Although it’s not perfect, it can provide some useful analysis of control flow at the least https://derevenets.com.

Crackme0x00a

First binary. When executed, we’re greeted with the following prompt:

Enter password: hi
Wrong!
Enter password: yes
Wrong!
Enter password: no
Wrong!
Enter password: password
Wrong!

So we need to figure out what the password is somehow. Let’s load this one into radare2 and see what kind of output comes out. Some useful functions for radare2 are ‘aa’ (analyze all) and ‘pdf’ (print decompiled function). Let’s take a look at the main function:

I’m going to go into the most detail on the first few crackmes, with progressively less of the basics as we go through. With some basic inspection it’s possible to see what this binary is doing.

Knowing how function calls work we can see that this code is using the scanf() function with the parameter %d, for instance.
Given that we’re looking for a password, and this code contains a call to strcmp (the standard C library to compare two strings) it seems likely that this is how the password is being checked against our input. There’s now a few ways of figuring out this password, each of which I’ll walk through as this illustrates the process nicely. Here’s the disassembled call to strcmp.

Method 1: Look through objdump

Looking at the disassembled instructions for strcmp it’s evidence the symbols are still present, and the password looks like it’s stored in sym.pass.1685. Running objdump -D on crackme0x00a and looking for pass.1685 turns up this:

0804a024 :
 804a024:       67 30 30                xor    %dh,(%bx,%si)
 804a027:       64 4a                   fs dec %edx
 804a029:       30 42 21                xor    %al,0x21(%edx)
 804a02c:       00 00                   add    %al,(%eax)

The second column is the data, and seems to be a null-terminated 8 character string (two hex digits = one byte) consisting of 67 30 30 64 4a 30 42 21. Mapped to decimal digits these become 103, 48, 48, 100, 74, 48, 66, 33, which are the ASCII codes for g 0 0 d J 0 B !. Which turns out to be the password!

Method 2: Check output of ‘strings’

`strings` is a small system utility that prints strings stored in binaries. Since we only want to see what’s in the data section the -d switch is helpful, resulting in this output:

$ strings -d ./crackme0x00a 
/lib/ld-linux.so.2
__gmon_start__
libc.so.6
_IO_stdin_used
__isoc99_scanf
puts
__stack_chk_fail
printf
strcmp
__libc_start_main
GLIBC_2.7
GLIBC_2.4
GLIBC_2.0
PTRh
D$,1
T$,e3
UWVS
[^_]
Enter password: 
Congrats!
Wrong!
;*2$"
g00dJ0B!

Method 3: Set a breakpoint at strcmp and examine in GDB

GDB makes it very easy to view code as it’s happening. Breakpoints can be set in the code, which are the “interesting” parts where we want to stop and examine what’s going on. A really useful breakpoint might be the strcmp function, because then we can see the two arguments being passed (our string and the target string). Starting up GDB for crackme0x00a and using the `break *0x0804852a` command, we can now execute `run` and should see something like this:

The lower third contains a visualization of the stack, and the top two items? Our comparison string and the password.

crackme0x00b

Let’s check the main() function for this one with the same commands as before: ‘aa’ followed by ‘pdf’:

Being able to map out the pseudocode for disassembled instructions in your head can be useful, since this crackme is similar to the last let’s start out with the pseudocode for the one we already solved (note, I’m not an expert at this by any means, I’m learning as I go):

main() {
  printf("Enter password: ");
  password = scanf("%s");
  while (strcmp(password, stored_password) != 0) {
    puts "Wrong!"
    password = scanf("%s");
  }
  puts "Congrats!"
}

But in our new crackme, the call is instead to wcscmp, and the scanf function uses %ls instead of %s. A little bit of research suggests that wcscmp is strcmp but for “wide” characters, and that %ls reads a “Pointer to wchar_t string”. So we’re dealing with something really similar to the first example but for wide characters. So we’re looking at:

main() {
  printf("Enter password: ");
  password = scanf("%ls");
  while (wcscmp(password, stored_password) != 0) {
    puts "Wrong!"
    password = scanf("%ls");
  }
  puts "Congrats!"
}

Running `strings` on the file doesn’t particularly help either. But method #1 from the previous example can work. Finding the relevant section in the objdump yields the following:

0804a040 :
 804a040:       77 00                   ja     804a042 
 804a042:       00 00                   add    %al,(%eax)
 804a044:       30 00                   xor    %al,(%eax)
 804a046:       00 00                   add    %al,(%eax)
 804a048:       77 00                   ja     804a04a 
 804a04a:       00 00                   add    %al,(%eax)
 804a04c:       67 00 00                add    %al,(%bx,%si)
 804a04f:       00 72 00                add    %dh,0x0(%edx)
 804a052:       00 00                   add    %al,(%eax)
 804a054:       65 00 00                add    %al,%gs:(%eax)
 804a057:       00 61 00                add    %ah,0x0(%ecx)
 804a05a:       00 00                   add    %al,(%eax)
 804a05c:       74 00                   je     804a05e 
 804a05e:       00 00                   add    %al,(%eax)
 804a060:       00 00                   add    %al,(%eax)

The wikipedia page for wchar_t states that “the width of wchar_t is compiler-specific and can be as small as 8 bits”. It looks here like they’re 32bits (reading down the second column). I did a quick test on my own system using the following program:

#include "wchar.h"

int main() {
  printf("%d", sizeof(wchar_t));
}

which outputs 4 (bytes), and so 32 bits. The bytes end up being 77 30 77 67 72 65 61 74, which translated into ASCII codes gives: “w0wgreat”. And this is the password!

crackme0x01

Our disassembled main() function:

The important part of this program is here:

Giving us a proposed code structure of something like the following:

main() {
  printf("IOLI Crackme Level 0x01\n");
  printf("Password: ");
  password = scanf("%d");
  if (password == 5247) {
    printf("Password OK!");
  } else {
    printf("Invalid Password");
  }
  return 0;
}

I mentioned the snowman decompiler in the intro, running crackme0x01 through the ‘nocode’ tool it supplies gives us the following (I’ve found nocode useful so far for mapping out the structure of a binary and figuring out the control flow):

int32_t main() {
    void* v1;
    void* v2;
    int32_t v3;

    fun_804831c("IOLI Crackme Level 0x01\n", v1);
    fun_804831c("Password: ", v2);
    fun_804830c("%d", reinterpret_cast(__zero_stack_offset()) - 4 - 4);
    if (v3 == 0x149a) {
        fun_804831c("Password OK :)\n", reinterpret_cast(__zero_stack_offset()) - 4 - 4);
    } else {
        fun_804831c("Invalid Password!\n", reinterpret_cast(__zero_stack_offset()) - 4 - 4);
    }
    return 0;
}

The scanf reads in a single decimal digit (%d), and then performs a cmp against some value (0x149a), jumping to “Password OK” if it’s equal. Therefore if we try the number 5274 it should work!

crackme0x02

Starting out with the radare2 output for the main function again:

Much of the structure is similar to the previous exercises, the part that’s different is the important segment with the imul operation here:

What might the pseudocode for this look like? Remember that the layout of the stack frame in IA32 architecture keeps local variables at locations below the stack pointer, so the definitions up the top are referencing two local variables at ebp-0x8 and ebp-0xc and assigning the values 0x5a (90) and 0x1ec (492) respectively. I’ve annotated the disassembly with what operations the parts of the code correspond to:

0x0804842b    c745f85a000. mov dword [ebp-0x8], 0x5a ; a = 90
0x08048432    c745f4ec010. mov dword [ebp-0xc], 0x1ec ; b = 492
0x08048439    8b55f4       mov edx, [ebp-0xc]
0x0804843c    8d45f8       lea eax, [ebp-0x8]
0x0804843f    0110         add [eax], edx ; a = a + b
0x08048441    8b45f8       mov eax, [ebp-0x8]
0x08048444    0faf45f8     imul eax, [ebp-0x8] ; a = a * a
0x08048448    8945f4       mov [ebp-0xc], eax
0x0804844b    8b45fc       mov eax, [ebp-0x4]
0x0804844e    3b45f4       cmp eax, [ebp-0xc]  ; if (password == a)
0x08048451    750e         jnz 0x8048461

The password is compared with the value of ((90 + 492) * (90 + 492)) which results in 338724, which is the password!.
Interestingly, running this code through snowman resulted in some of the excess operations being folded and optimised out. The function ends up being:

int32_t main() {
    void* v1;
    void* v2;
    int32_t v3;

    fun_804831c("IOLI Crackme Level 0x02\n", v1);
    fun_804831c("Password: ", v2);
    fun_804830c("%d", reinterpret_cast(__zero_stack_offset()) - 4 - 4);
    if (v3 != 0x52b24) {
        fun_804831c("Invalid Password!\n", reinterpret_cast(__zero_stack_offset()) - 4 - 4);
    } else {
        fun_804831c("Password OK :)\n", reinterpret_cast(__zero_stack_offset()) - 4 - 4);
    }
    return 0;
}

Spoiler alert! The hex value 0x52b24 corresponds to the decimal value of 338724.

crackme0x03

This one is extremely similar to the last. In fact, the solution is the same. When disassembling the binary with radare2 you might notice a slight difference. Now, instead of directly comparing the password against the stored password in the main() function, it calls a test() function that looks like this:

The structure of this code shouldn’t really be too difficult to understand, here’s what it might look like in pseudocode:

test(a, b) {
  if (a == b) {
    shift("SdvvzrugRN")
  } else {
    shift("LqydolgSdvvzrug")
  }
}

The fact that the function is named “shift” and that it contains what seems like random letters should be a clue, as is the structure of the test() function. I suspect this is using a simple caesar cipher and rotating the letters. I was looking for a quick way to test this theory, so I hacked up some ruby to rotate the characters in the string and see if I got anything interesting.

require 'pp'

str = "LqydolgSdvvzrug"

alpha = ('a'..'z').to_a + ('A'..'Z').to_a

1.upto(26) do |i|
  pp str.split("").map { |s| (s.ord - i).chr }.join
end

The resulting output is:

"KpxcnkfRcuuyqtf"
"JowbmjeQbttxpse"
"InvalidPassword"
"Hmu`khcO`rrvnqc"
"Glt_jgbN_qqumpb"
[..truncated..]

So we’re looking at strings rotated 3 places to the left. None of this was really necessary, but there you go. I hope you enjoyed this walkthrough, I’ve split the overall guide into several sections else they can get pretty long, so look forward to more soon!.